In his lecture, Astor discussed two challenges that programs of intervention must address to achieve their goals – sustainability and scalability: How can sustained implementation be ensured without continuous external intervention? And how can the success of a grassroots initiative be replicated on a larger scale? In an attempt to answer these questions, Astor presented data on the effects on different schools of various intervention programs in which he has been involved as a designer and researcher. His conclusion was that the key to sustainability and scalability is the ability of school principals and program developers to harness existing resources by embedding the initiative in the routine work done by schools and existing public institutions.
For more on Astor's research in this area, see: